Pigmentation refers to the darker areas of uneven skin tone or patches on the skin caused by sun damage, injury, health or hormonal problems. Pigment called melanin is found in hair, skin and eyes and is essentially what gives these areas their colour. A healthy skin would have a balanced production of melanin on the face and body, but darker skin types have more melanin in their cells.
When skin cells are healthy, they produce cells evenly but when they become damaged or unhealthy, extra melanin is produced to protect the skin. UV exposure without protection can trigger excessive production of melanin, which is why we tan. Hormonal imbalances where excess estrogen is produced can also lead to the production of melanin, most commonly on the face.
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